Des mots Pour Grand Dire

Karine Boom, Orthophoniste


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Apprendre ses mots de vocabulaire

Posted on March 30, 2017 at 8:40 PM

Apprendre ses mots de vocabulaire

 

Comment réaliser au mieux cette tâche répétitive ?

La répétition permettra la mémorisation de l’information et l’automatisation des stratégies de correction orthographique.

Cette tâche pourra servir de prétexte pour mieux faire comprendre à vos enfants ces stratégies d’apprenant privilégiées, et si possible d’utiliser l’ensemble des stratégies disponibles pour encore mieux favoriser l’intégration de ces connaissances orthographiques.

 

Quelques stratégies de l’apprenant (tirées de Antoine de la Garanderie)

Je ferme mes yeux et dans ma tête, je vois les lettres des mots écrits.

Je peux entendre dans ma tête les lettres des mots ou bien la séquence des sons qui le composent.

Mes mouvements accompagnent chacune des lettres ou des sons ou bien encore des syllabes de ce mot. J’utilise mon corps pour apprendre. Non, je ne suis pas hyperactif. C’est la meilleure façon pour moi d’apprendre et avec plaisir en plus, ce qui est très important. Note : J’ai souvent marché en lisant (oui, je sais ça fait penser à Belle de Disney mais je ne chantais pas !) en ajoutant des mouvements de la tête lorsqu’il s’agissait d’apprendre par cœur. Donc, s’il vous plait, ne vous inquiétez pas et laissez votre enfant bouger s’il est concentré sur la tâche qu’il doit réaliser.

Les trucs pour l’orthographe

- On lit le mot et on en profite pour développer ses connaissances sur le sens de ce mot ; expliquer ce que veut dire ce mot, verbaliser les liens entre ce mot et d’autres mots de la même catégorie, à quoi il sert, où on le trouve… Non seulement vous l’aidez à développer son vocabulaire, son lexique, mais ceci sera aussi très utile lorsqu’il se trouvera face à des homophones, donc des mots qui se disent de la même façon mais ne s’écrivent pas de la même façon, justement parce qu’ils ne veulent pas dire la même chose (ex. mais-met-m’est-mes)

- On cherche dans quelle catégorie grammaticale ce mot se trouve… très utile pour réaliser les accords entre les mots : il ne suffit pas de dire «ah oui c’est au pluriel, donc je mets un s». Non, parce que si c’est un verbe, au présent, je mettrai –ent ! On rappelle ici les stratégies de base pour trouver un déterminant, un nom, un verbe… car ces mots sont variables; ils varient en fonction des mots qui sont autour d’eux

- Ferme les yeux; je vois les syllabes de ce mot, j’entends les syllabes, je fais comme si je touchais les syllabes de ce mot.

- Relit le mot; mission «détective» : Je connais bien les sons que font ces lettres mais celles-ci changent. Ainsi, le son /an/ s’écrit parfois avec les lettres «an», parfois «en» ou «am, em». Le son /j/ parfois s’écrit avec la lettre «j» mais parfois avec la lettre «g»…oui mais ceci dépend aussi de la voyelle (et on rappelle la règle du «g dur» et du «g doux»). Donc, qu’est-ce que je dois retenir dans le mot « venter» ? Je dis les sons /v, an, t ,é/. Ici, je dois retenir que le /an/ s’écrit «en» et que le /é/ s’écrit «er», c’est un verbe non conjugué pour l’instant.

Je surligne le «en» ou je le dis dans ma tête…

- Je fais des liens avec des mots de la même famille – Le sens et la catégorie grammaticale :

Dans « venter», j’entends et je vois le mot «vent». Oui, on a vu que ça voulait dire qu’il y avait du vent. Ça n’a rien avoir avec « se vanter»

«Venter», c’est un verbe en «er» comme «jeter, manger…»

- Si c’est possible, pour m’aider à retenir une particularité d’un mot, je la dessine, je la raconte, je la mime…Ex. «ville» : à retenir les 2 «l». Dans une grande ville, il y a souvent des tours. Je les dessine avec les 2 «l»…

- Je relis le mot, je referme les yeux, j’utilise une de mes stratégies. Je segmente le mot en sons quand je me le dis dans ma tête. Je vois les lettres ou j’épelle les lettres ou je scande en rythme les lettres du mot

- J’écris ensuite le mot seul puis dans une courte phrase ; ce qui donne une occasion supplémentaire de revoir des notions de grammaire de base… sans doute même une de celles qui est à apprendre cette semaine. Je l’intègre ici et c’est ainsi que je l’assimile encore mieux!

Est-ce que lorsque vous écrivez, il se passe tout ça dans votre tête ? Même si vous n’en êtes pas conscient, vous faites tous ces liens. Mais vous avez aussi répété ces procédures, ce qui fait que vous avez intégré, assimilé l’information que le mot «éléphant» par exemple s’écrit avec les lettres «é, ph, an, t» donc vous ne passez plus par ces étapes conscientes.

Mais vous avez répété ces informations pour y arriver…

Alors si vous aidez votre enfant à faire ses devoirs et que malgré ces répétitions, les stratégies utilisées, vous remarquez que ce type d’information ne s’intègre pas, c’est qu’il présente probablement une problématique qui doit être évaluée par un professionnel reconnu.

Vous pouvez consulter la liste des orthophonistes sur le site de l’OOAQ.

Karine Boom, orthophoniste /Sur FB, Des mots Pour Grand Dire

 

Categories: Orthophonie

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