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Karine Boom, Orthophoniste


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Avant l'apprentissage formel de la lecture, quelles habiletés doit avoir un enfant ?

Posted on January 24, 2017 at 10:15 AM

Les habiletés qui doivent être présentes chez un enfant avant l’apprentissage même de la lecture et de l’écriture.

La lecture interactive d’histoire pour favoriser le développement de certaines de ces compétences.

Karine Boom, orthophoniste

Un fait avéré!

Déjà, il y a 26 ans lors de mes études universitaires, on nous l’enseignait. : «Les enfants qui présentent des difficultés de langage (oral) sont à plus haut risque de développer des difficultés en lecture et en écriture». Et la littérature est claire : «… même si leurs difficultés se sont résorbées avant leur entrée en maternelle»*

Ainsi, lors de l’évaluation en langage écrit, il n’est pas rare que des jeunes de 10 ans et plus présentent des troubles phonologiques résiduels. Exemple, quelques transformations de mots longs qui sont bien ancrées : «rinoféroce», c’est mignon à 3 ans mais à 11 ans ?! Parfois les parents sont tellement habitués à entendre leurs enfants parler d’une certaine façon qu’ils n’ont pas (eu) conscience de confusion évidente. Exemple, cette jeune fille de 10 ans qui assourdissait le phonème /v/. Ainsi, au lieu de dire «devant», elle disait «defant» mais personne ne l’avait remarqué…Même pas l’orthopédagogue, mais chacun son métier !

Prédire les difficultés avant l’apprentissage formel

Mais au-delà de certaines évidences puisque langage oral et langage écrit sont liés, quelles sont les habiletés dont l’enfant doit disposer pour évoluer de façon harmonieuse dans ce processus d’apprentissage du langage écrit.

*6 habiletés prédictives sont relevées et font généralement partie de l’évaluation du langage écrit :

-Les connaissances alphabétiques : identifier les lettres de l’alphabet puis en nommer quelques une.

-La conscience phonologique dont nous vous avons déjà parlé précédemment

- La dénomination rapide de lettre et chiffres, d’objets et de couleurs : nommer le plus vite possible des items connus. Le test DRA fait partie de quelques batteries d’évaluation afin de tester l’accès lexical car il est reconnu que certains élèves dyslexiques ont un temps de dénomination beaucoup plus long si comparé à une population normale.

- Écrire des lettres et son prénom

- La mémoire phonologique. Exemple : La capacité à répéter des séquences sans sens de 3, 4 et 5 syllabes.

La connaissance de l’écrit (ex. Les majuscule, les ponctuations…) et le traitement visuel sont d’autres compétences aussi très importants.

Concernant les habiletés langagières au préscolaire et en maternelle, les éducatrices en milieu de garde ainsi que l’encadrement familial et éducatif jouent un rôle prépondérant en préparant l’enfant à «entrer» dans l’écrit par les activités de stimulation de langage proposées et la qualité des interactions pendant la lecture. Toutes les composantes du langage seront à prioriser, à savoir aussi bien l’aspect phonologique que lexical, que les acquisitions syntaxiques, métacognitives ou pragmatique du langage. Ex. il est reconnu que plus l’enfant a un bon niveau lexical et plus son apprentissage de la lecture sera facilité. Il est donc essentiel de se tourner vers un professionnel reconnu pour son expertise dans le domaine langagier tel que l’orthophoniste en cas de doute.

Après la période d’éveil à l’écrit

Une fois le stade du décodage terminé, d’autres habiletés langagières feront l’objet d’intervention spécifique. En effet, dès le 2ème cycle du primaire, l’enfant doit comprendre ce qu’il lit et donc le vocabulaire, vocabulaire littéraire, les structures de phrase plus complexes, l’utilisation d’un langage hors communication réelle, déduire ou inférer des informations etc… Tous ces éléments sont souvent encore à travailler mais doivent se préparer bien avant l’entrée au primaire.

 

La lecture interactive, un moyen de remédier à quelques lacunes

Il s’agit d’un moyen de prévention efficace avant une éventuelle conclusion de trouble d’apprentissage et qui peut être utilisé dès que l’enfant est en âge d’écouter une histoire.

Faut-il être assis pour lire une histoire?

La lecture interactive permet de mettre en scène une histoire vivante. Il s’agit d’animer l’histoire pour la rendre motivante et libre d’échange. L’adulte ne questionne pas constamment mais plutôt fait des réflexions à voix haute sur ce qu’il comprend de l’histoire. Véritable activité de stimulation, la lecture du même livre sur plusieurs jours permet de développer :

- le vocabulaire sous plusieurs aspects : Ex. on mime, met le mot dans différents contextes…

- les habiletés de récit. Ex. On répond aux questions qui, pourquoi, comment, avant, après puis on reconstruit l’histoire dans nos mots

- les capacités d’inférence. Ex. On dit comment le personnage se sent. On fait des suppositions de l’endroit où il se trouve et on explique ces liens…

- la conscience de l’écrit. Ex. On explique ce que sont ces signes autres que les lettres et à quoi ils servent…

- la conscience phonologique. Ex. On retrouve le son «é» dans les mots dits, les mots qui riment etc

L’histoire lue avec cette approche est un moment d’apprentissage riche où toute la complexité du langage oral et écrit peut être dite…

* Les informations présentées ici sont tirées du livre « Difficultés de lecture et d’écriture» MC St Pierre, V Dalpé, P Lefebvre et C Giroux et de la formation de lecture partagée enrichie de Pascal Lefebvre ainsi que de notre pratique quotidienne avec les enfants.


 

 

Categories: Orthophonie

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