Des mots Pour Grand Dire

Karine Boom, Orthophoniste


Blogue

Blogue

Avant l'apprentissage formel de la lecture, quelles habiletés doit avoir un enfant ?

Posted on January 24, 2017 at 10:15 AM

Les habiletés qui doivent être présentes chez un enfant avant l’apprentissage même de la lecture et de l’écriture.

La lecture interactive d’histoire pour favoriser le développement de certaines de ces compétences.

Karine Boom, orthophoniste

Un fait avéré!

Déjà, il y a 26 ans lors de mes études universitaires, on nous l’enseignait. : «Les enfants qui présentent des difficultés de langage (oral) sont à plus haut risque de développer des difficultés en lecture et en écriture». Et la littérature est claire : «… même si leurs difficultés se sont résorbées avant leur entrée en maternelle»*

Ainsi, lors de l’évaluation en langage écrit, il n’est pas rare que des jeunes de 10 ans et plus présentent des troubles phonologiques résiduels. Exemple, quelques transformations de mots longs qui sont bien ancrées : «rinoféroce», c’est mignon à 3 ans mais à 11 ans ?! Parfois les parents sont tellement habitués à entendre leurs enfants parler d’une certaine façon qu’ils n’ont pas (eu) conscience de confusion évidente. Exemple, cette jeune fille de 10 ans qui assourdissait le phonème /v/. Ainsi, au lieu de dire «devant», elle disait «defant» mais personne ne l’avait remarqué…Même pas l’orthopédagogue, mais chacun son métier !

Prédire les difficultés avant l’apprentissage formel

Mais au-delà de certaines évidences puisque langage oral et langage écrit sont liés, quelles sont les habiletés dont l’enfant doit disposer pour évoluer de façon harmonieuse dans ce processus d’apprentissage du langage écrit.

*6 habiletés prédictives sont relevées et font généralement partie de l’évaluation du langage écrit :

-Les connaissances alphabétiques : identifier les lettres de l’alphabet puis en nommer quelques une.

-La conscience phonologique dont nous vous avons déjà parlé précédemment

- La dénomination rapide de lettre et chiffres, d’objets et de couleurs : nommer le plus vite possible des items connus. Le test DRA fait partie de quelques batteries d’évaluation afin de tester l’accès lexical car il est reconnu que certains élèves dyslexiques ont un temps de dénomination beaucoup plus long si comparé à une population normale.

- Écrire des lettres et son prénom

- La mémoire phonologique. Exemple : La capacité à répéter des séquences sans sens de 3, 4 et 5 syllabes.

La connaissance de l’écrit (ex. Les majuscule, les ponctuations…) et le traitement visuel sont d’autres compétences aussi très importants.

Concernant les habiletés langagières au préscolaire et en maternelle, les éducatrices en milieu de garde ainsi que l’encadrement familial et éducatif jouent un rôle prépondérant en préparant l’enfant à «entrer» dans l’écrit par les activités de stimulation de langage proposées et la qualité des interactions pendant la lecture. Toutes les composantes du langage seront à prioriser, à savoir aussi bien l’aspect phonologique que lexical, que les acquisitions syntaxiques, métacognitives ou pragmatique du langage. Ex. il est reconnu que plus l’enfant a un bon niveau lexical et plus son apprentissage de la lecture sera facilité. Il est donc essentiel de se tourner vers un professionnel reconnu pour son expertise dans le domaine langagier tel que l’orthophoniste en cas de doute.

Après la période d’éveil à l’écrit

Une fois le stade du décodage terminé, d’autres habiletés langagières feront l’objet d’intervention spécifique. En effet, dès le 2ème cycle du primaire, l’enfant doit comprendre ce qu’il lit et donc le vocabulaire, vocabulaire littéraire, les structures de phrase plus complexes, l’utilisation d’un langage hors communication réelle, déduire ou inférer des informations etc… Tous ces éléments sont souvent encore à travailler mais doivent se préparer bien avant l’entrée au primaire.

 

La lecture interactive, un moyen de remédier à quelques lacunes

Il s’agit d’un moyen de prévention efficace avant une éventuelle conclusion de trouble d’apprentissage et qui peut être utilisé dès que l’enfant est en âge d’écouter une histoire.

Faut-il être assis pour lire une histoire?

La lecture interactive permet de mettre en scène une histoire vivante. Il s’agit d’animer l’histoire pour la rendre motivante et libre d’échange. L’adulte ne questionne pas constamment mais plutôt fait des réflexions à voix haute sur ce qu’il comprend de l’histoire. Véritable activité de stimulation, la lecture du même livre sur plusieurs jours permet de développer :

- le vocabulaire sous plusieurs aspects : Ex. on mime, met le mot dans différents contextes…

- les habiletés de récit. Ex. On répond aux questions qui, pourquoi, comment, avant, après puis on reconstruit l’histoire dans nos mots

- les capacités d’inférence. Ex. On dit comment le personnage se sent. On fait des suppositions de l’endroit où il se trouve et on explique ces liens…

- la conscience de l’écrit. Ex. On explique ce que sont ces signes autres que les lettres et à quoi ils servent…

- la conscience phonologique. Ex. On retrouve le son «é» dans les mots dits, les mots qui riment etc

L’histoire lue avec cette approche est un moment d’apprentissage riche où toute la complexité du langage oral et écrit peut être dite…

* Les informations présentées ici sont tirées du livre « Difficultés de lecture et d’écriture» MC St Pierre, V Dalpé, P Lefebvre et C Giroux et de la formation de lecture partagée enrichie de Pascal Lefebvre ainsi que de notre pratique quotidienne avec les enfants.


 

 

Categories: Orthophonie

Post a Comment

Oops!

Oops, you forgot something.

Oops!

The words you entered did not match the given text. Please try again.

2484 Comments

Reply moncler
10:05 AM on April 20, 2021 
I am glad for commenting to make you understand what a impressive discovery my girl had visiting yuor web blog. She came to understand a wide variety of issues, including what it's like to possess an awesome giving nature to have other folks effortlessly know chosen tortuous subject areas. You actually exceeded my expectations. Many thanks for coming up with those effective, trustworthy, informative and as well as cool tips on this topic to Lizeth.
moncler http://www.monclerjackets.us
Reply adidas yeezy
10:05 AM on April 20, 2021 
I am just writing to make you know what a amazing discovery my wife's daughter found checking your web page. She noticed plenty of pieces, which include what it is like to have an amazing helping spirit to make a number of people with ease grasp some multifaceted matters. You truly did more than our expected results. Thank you for providing these informative, dependable, explanatory not to mention fun guidance on your topic to Gloria.
adidas yeezy http://www.adidasyeezyboost350.us.com
Reply off-white
10:04 AM on April 20, 2021 
I simply wanted to make a brief note to be able to express gratitude to you for some of the marvelous techniques you are posting at this site. My rather long internet investigation has at the end been paid with pleasant insight to go over with my friends. I 'd point out that many of us readers are quite blessed to be in a notable site with many awesome individuals with interesting things. I feel extremely privileged to have used your web page and look forward to really more pleasurable minutes reading here. Thank you again for all the details.
off-white http://www.off--white.us.com
Reply air jordan 1
10:04 AM on April 20, 2021 
I am commenting to let you know of the useful encounter my wife's girl experienced viewing the blog. She realized plenty of issues, which included how it is like to possess an awesome teaching spirit to have others without problems grasp a variety of grueling subject areas. You actually exceeded our own desires. Thank you for providing those productive, trustworthy, edifying as well as easy thoughts on this topic to Lizeth.
air jordan 1 http://www.jordan1shoes.us
Reply kobe byrant shoes
10:03 AM on April 20, 2021 
My husband and i got joyous that Albert managed to do his investigations through your ideas he received out of the web site. It's not at all simplistic to simply choose to be giving away helpful tips which often the others have been trying to sell. So we realize we now have the blog owner to appreciate because of that. The most important illustrations you made, the easy web site navigation, the relationships you will assist to foster - it's got all fantastic, and it's really aiding our son in addition to the family understand that topic is interesting, which is certainly unbelievably serious. Many thanks for the whole lot!
kobe byrant shoes http://www.kobe-shoes.us.com
Reply nike sb
10:02 AM on April 20, 2021 
I wanted to put you a little remark in order to give thanks over again for these spectacular solutions you've provided at this time. It was really surprisingly open-handed with you in giving freely all that a lot of folks could have distributed as an ebook to generate some profit for themselves, most importantly since you could possibly have done it if you considered necessary. These inspiring ideas in addition served like a good way to realize that some people have similar keenness the same as my personal own to understand good deal more around this issue. I'm certain there are many more fun occasions up front for many who read your website.
nike sb http://www.sbdunk.us
Reply yeezy 700
4:39 PM on April 19, 2021 
I happen to be commenting to make you know what a superb experience my cousin's princess obtained reading through your blog. She discovered a lot of issues, which include what it is like to have an incredible teaching mindset to get others easily fully understand various extremely tough subject areas. You undoubtedly surpassed visitors' expected results. I appreciate you for presenting such precious, healthy, educational and in addition easy tips on that topic to Tanya.
yeezy 700 http://www.yeezy-shoes.us.org
Reply kyrie 6
4:38 PM on April 19, 2021 
I must express some thanks to this writer just for bailing me out of this particular instance. As a result of exploring throughout the search engines and getting thoughts which are not pleasant, I assumed my entire life was over. Living minus the strategies to the issues you have solved as a result of your entire site is a crucial case, and those which may have in a wrong way damaged my entire career if I hadn't encountered your web blog. Your actual capability and kindness in playing with everything was tremendous. I'm not sure what I would've done if I had not come across such a step like this. I'm able to now relish my future. Thanks a lot very much for the reliable and amazing guide. I won't think twice to refer the sites to any individual who should have recommendations on this subject.
kyrie 6 http://www.kyrie6.org
Reply yeezy
4:36 PM on April 19, 2021 
A lot of thanks for your whole effort on this web page. My mother take interest in working on research and it's simple to grasp why. A number of us hear all regarding the powerful manner you deliver practical steps via your web blog and in addition encourage response from visitors about this area and our own girl is always understanding a great deal. Take pleasure in the remaining portion of the new year. You're carrying out a fantastic job.
yeezy http://www.yeezysus.com
Reply lebron james shoes
4:36 PM on April 19, 2021 
My wife and i were absolutely comfortable that John could round up his investigation from the precious recommendations he acquired out of your blog. It is now and again perplexing to just always be giving away thoughts which usually other folks may have been trying to sell. Therefore we do know we've got the writer to be grateful to because of that. The explanations you made, the straightforward site menu, the relationships you make it possible to engender - it's all remarkable, and it is helping our son in addition to us recognize that this topic is enjoyable, which is unbelievably fundamental. Thanks for all the pieces!
lebron james shoes http://www.lebronjames-shoes.us.com
Reply steph curry shoes
4:35 PM on April 19, 2021 
I want to get across my passion for your generosity in support of persons that need assistance with this particular idea. Your real dedication to passing the solution across was quite advantageous and have constantly allowed ladies like me to realize their dreams. Your entire useful key points indicates a great deal a person like me and still more to my mates. Thank you; from each one of us.
steph curry shoes http://www.curryshoes.net
Reply golden goose
4:35 PM on April 19, 2021 
I wanted to create you that little word just to give many thanks again on the precious guidelines you've featured above. It was strangely generous of people like you to provide easily what exactly a few individuals might have advertised as an e book to make some bucks for themselves, precisely seeing that you could have done it in the event you decided. The ideas likewise served as the easy way to know that many people have similar eagerness just like mine to figure out a good deal more with regard to this problem. I am sure there are many more pleasant sessions in the future for individuals that view your website.
golden goose http://www.golden-goose.us
Reply lebron james shoes
10:32 PM on April 18, 2021 
I am just commenting to make you know of the fine encounter our child experienced using the blog. She came to understand a lot of issues, with the inclusion of what it is like to possess an incredible giving spirit to have a number of people really easily gain knowledge of various extremely tough things. You actually surpassed readers' expected results. Many thanks for distributing these informative, healthy, explanatory and in addition easy tips on that topic to Kate.
lebron james shoes http://www.lebronjames-shoes.us.com
Reply lebron shoes
10:32 PM on April 18, 2021 
I simply desired to appreciate you again. I'm not certain what I would have created in the absence of the type of information revealed by you regarding such a question. This was a intimidating issue in my position, but seeing your expert avenue you processed that made me to weep with gladness. I will be grateful for the information and trust you comprehend what an amazing job you happen to be getting into teaching people all through your websites. Most probably you've never got to know any of us.
lebron shoes http://www.lebron18.us
Reply yeezy 350
10:31 PM on April 18, 2021 
I am also writing to make you understand of the awesome experience my cousin's daughter had going through yuor web blog. She even learned some pieces, most notably how it is like to have an amazing helping mood to have men and women clearly have an understanding of a number of complex topics. You really surpassed our own expectations. Thanks for presenting such great, trusted, educational not to mention cool tips about this topic to Julie.
yeezy 350 http://www.yeezy350boostv2s.us
Reply kyrie 5 spongebob
10:31 PM on April 18, 2021 
I must get across my passion for your kind-heartedness for all those that require assistance with this particular issue. Your special commitment to getting the message around came to be remarkably invaluable and have allowed most people like me to reach their desired goals. Your amazing valuable information can mean a whole lot to me and extremely more to my office colleagues. Thanks a lot; from everyone of us.
kyrie 5 spongebob http://www.kyrie5spongebob.us
Reply yeezy boost 350
10:31 PM on April 18, 2021 
Thanks for your own work on this web page. My niece really loves engaging in investigations and it's really obvious why. A number of us know all about the compelling form you create sensible tricks by means of the blog and as well as recommend participation from some others on that situation and our favorite girl is starting to learn a great deal. Take pleasure in the remaining portion of the new year. You have been carrying out a dazzling job.
yeezy boost 350 http://www.yeezyboost350v2s.us
Reply golden goose shoes
10:31 PM on April 18, 2021 
Needed to put you one very little remark just to say thanks yet again with the extraordinary basics you have documented on this website. It has been surprisingly open-handed of people like you to provide openly what exactly a lot of people could have marketed for an electronic book to make some profit on their own, and in particular given that you might well have tried it if you ever considered necessary. Those basics likewise served like the good way to be certain that some people have the identical desire similar to my personal own to know somewhat more when considering this condition. I think there are thousands of more pleasurable periods up front for many who read carefully your site.
golden goose shoes http://www.goldengoosesneakers.us.org
Reply curry 6 shoes
10:30 PM on April 18, 2021 
I wanted to develop a quick message to be able to appreciate you for those superb tricks you are sharing on this site. My time consuming internet lookup has at the end been compensated with incredibly good content to share with my guests. I 'd claim that many of us website visitors actually are definitely lucky to dwell in a decent website with so many marvellous individuals with very beneficial principles. I feel very much happy to have seen your web page and look forward to tons of more thrilling moments reading here. Thanks a lot once again for a lot of things.
curry 6 shoes http://www.curry-6.us
Reply jordan 4
10:29 PM on April 18, 2021 
I am writing to make you know what a fine encounter my cousin's princess went through visiting your web page. She figured out some pieces, which include what it's like to have an incredible teaching heart to make other folks easily master several very confusing things. You undoubtedly exceeded my expectations. Thanks for displaying those valuable, dependable, informative as well as easy tips on this topic to Emily.
jordan 4 http://www.jordan4.us.com