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Karine Boom, Orthophoniste


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La musique et la DNP au service des enfants avec des troubles d'apprentissage

Posted on October 29, 2016 at 2:50 PM

Une façon d’approcher les troubles dys-: la multimodalité

Cet article sert à faire des liens entre Mélodys, une remédiation cognitivo-musicale innovante (initiée par le Dr Michel Habib, neurologue, une orthophoniste Céline Commeiras et une enseignante en musique, Alice Dormoy. Site web : www.melodys.org pour plus d’infos) et la DNP ou dynamique naturelle de la parole créée par Madeleine Dunoyer (Site web : www.lajoiedeparler.ca)

 

Le cerveau des dys-

Au cours de ma dernière formation, voici ce que le Dr Habib nous mentionnait :

Les travaux d’imagerie cérébrale montrent que le cerveau des dys- présenterait un défaut de connectivité; cette dernière représentant si vous voulez plus simplement les liens des circuits neuronaux (de neurones qui transmettent les influx nerveux ou «commandes» du cerveau) entre différentes zones du cerveau. Ces circuits concernent les aspects phonologiques (les sons qui constituent les mots), attentionnel et de coordination sensorimotrice et rythmique. Le cerveau des enfants dys- présenterait donc des dysfonctionnements au niveau de toutes ces connexions mais différemment selon le type de dyslexie, par exemple, présentée.

Le cerveau des musiciens

À l’inverse, plusieurs études montrent que le cerveau du musicien présente plusieurs particularités dont des zones cervicales plus développées au niveau des aires auditives, sensorielles et motrices.

La pratique intermodale

La pratique de la musique de façon répétitive, intensive et inter-modalitaire (visuo-auditive-sensorimotrice) et rythmique aiderait les enfants dys- en ayant un effet sculptant sur leurs connexions intra cérébrales. Alliée à une thérapie orthophonique, elle aussi axée sur la rééducation des aspects séquentiels temporels mais aussi visuels, auditif et moteur en interrelation, ceci faciliterait la récupération fonctionnelle de certaines zones cérébrales endommagées ou stimulerait, en tous cas, des zones cérébrales impliquant le langage.

En sus de difficulté au niveau de la concentration et de la mémorisation, on note notamment que les enfants dys- ont de la difficulté à repérer les différences de durée entre les sons, à s’adapter au changement de tempo, à reproduire des séquences rythmiques, à saisir la différence entre des informations visuelles rapides et peu contrastées…

Ce sont également des enfants qui ont souvent des années de rééducation derrière eux et aborder leurs difficultés avec une autre approche permet à plusieurs de s’investir malgré tout. La musique permet aussi de faire un travail sur les émotions, le ressenti et par là enrichir le bagage lexical et favoriser les représentations mentales.

La dynamique naturelle de la parole, méthode multimodale

La DNP est une approche globale qui va également dans le sens de l’intermodalité puisque l’on passe de sons articulés, aux mouvements associés dans l’espace, au massage où l’aspect kinesthésique est plus présent…Dans ma pratique, je l’utilise très souvent avec les petits qui ont un retard ou troubles de langage mais pas seulement pour travailler la phonologie. Des petites phrases sont par exemple présentées avec des rythmes différents, chantées, dansées puis mémorisées selon un objectif précis (ex. le «je»). Avec les plus grands, le travail de conscience phonologique et de discrimination perceptive est supporté par un travail rythmique et gestuel et mis en lien avec la modalité visuelle (ex. «g dur - g doux», la lettre «g» fera /j/ sur le haut de mon soleil des voyelles mais fera /g/ tout en bas). La lecture peut se faire en rythme, la ponctuation mis en parallèle avec les pauses et silence d’une musique…

Quelques idées d’exercices pour vous parents d’enfants dys-

Alors parents, n’hésitez pas à lire en chantant chacun votre tour un paragraphe ou en lecture simultanée. Soyez juste cohérent dans vos pauses et allongement de rythmes. Mémorisez une des phrases et ajoutez-y des gestes.

Apprenez les mots de vocabulaire en changeant la hauteur de chacune des syllabes (aigu, médium ou grave), associez y un geste. Une hauteur peut aussi être associée à une syllabe du mot sur laquelle il faut être plus attentif en l’écrivant. Par exemple, pour apprendre l’orthographe du mot «éléphant», on pourrait garder la hauteur plus aigüe pour la syllabe «phant» et ainsi de suite, pour les autres mots de vocabulaire.

Amusez-vous! Laissez aller votre créativité

Karine Boom, orthophoniste

M.O.A.

N.B. Nous faisons maintenant partie du Réseau Mélodys.

 

 

 

Categories: Orthophonie

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