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Karine Boom, Orthophoniste


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La conscience phonologique, c'est quoi?

Posted on July 31, 2016 at 7:05 AM

La conscience phonologique, c’est quoi?

Notre langue écrite est grapho-phonémique, ce qui signifie que lorsque nous apprenons à lire et à écrire, nous faisons des correspondances entre les sons et les lettres, les lettres et les sons!

 

De ce fait, vous entendrez souvent parler qu’il faut travailler la conscience phonologique lorsque votre enfant est en apprentissage de la langue écrite ou a des difficultés d’apprentissage.

 

Mais qu’est- ce que c’est ?

On la définit comme une habileté métacognitive (ou être capable de penser à comment on pense, analyse, réfléchit…;) qui nous permet de traiter la forme sonore d’un mot.

La conscience des sons et syllabes de notre langue est souvent abordée très tôt. Exemple lorsqu’on chante avec nos enfants des chansons à rimes ou on fait des comptines…

Plus tard, on apprend vraiment à manipuler, à jongler avec ces syllabes et ces sons (phonèmes). On réfléchit sur ces unités : L’enfant peut dire qu’il y a 3 syllabes dans le mot « pantalon » en rythme, que la deuxième est « ta ».On parle alors de conscience syllabique. C’est celle qui se développe en premier, notamment en maternelle.

Ensuite, vient la conscience phonémique. Ici, on peut par exemple dire que le premier son du mot « pantalon » est « p », que ce mot contient 6 sons et pouvoir les nommer en respectant leur ordre, leur séquence. Êtes-vous capable de nommer ces 6 sons? Pour vérifier votre réponse, lisez la suite!

Si votre enfant a commencé à apprendre à lire et à écrire et qu’il présente des difficultés à réaliser cet apprentissage, c’est souvent au niveau de la conscience phonémique et non de la conscience syllabique qu’il y a des limites.

Dites-moi une des choses que je dois faire pour aider mon enfant à apprendre à lire et à écrire?

SI votre enfant présente (ou a présenté;) des difficultés langagières (principalement des troubles phonologiques, un retard de langage…;), il est possible qu’il ait un système (cognitif) fragilisé et qu’il ne puisse pas faire cet apprentissage avec facilité. Ce sont des jeunes qui sont dit à risque de présenter un trouble d’apprentissage.

Enfin, parfois, votre enfant ne développera pas un trouble d’apprentissage spécifique, tel que la dyslexie ou la dysorthographie, mais aura par exemple été confronté à des expériences pédagogiques qui ne lui convenaient pas que ce soit sur le plan qualitatif ou quantitatif (Pascal Lefebvre, formation de lecture interactive enrichie).

L’orthophoniste joue aussi un rôle préventif face à votre enfant :

Sur un plan préventif, ceci nous indique deux choses importantes : Ne tardez pas à faire évaluer votre enfant par une orthophoniste si vous avez un doute quant à l’intégrité de ses capacités langagières et travaillez sa conscience phonémique.

Une acquisition pas à pas…

Je dresserai ici les étapes sommaires de cet apprentissage ainsi qu’une des manières les plus simples pour vous de savoir quels sons (phonèmes) se trouvent dans un mot. Et oui, souvent ceci est une tâche ardue pour les parents, adultes ou adolescents, parce que nous avons acquis un bagage lexical orthographique qui fait que nous utilisons maintenant moins souvent ce système de décodage.

• La rime : être capable de dire si deux mots riment, trouver des mots qui riment avec

• La conscience phonémique :

• Mettre ensemble deux sons (phonèmes) et dire ce que l’on obtient;

• Identifier que dans tel mot, j’entends tel son;

• La segmentation : j’enlève tel son, il reste…;

j’ajoute tel son, cela fait…;

J’inverse les sons, j’obtiens…

Je découpe le mot en ses différents sons, et cela donne…

• Commencer à faire les correspondances entre les lettres et les sons car par exemple, la lettre « F » s’appelle « èf », c’est son nom.

Mais son son (phonème), c’est le bruit du vent, c’est fffffff!

Il est important de bien comprendre la différence entre le nom de la lettre et le son de la lettre et de nommer ceci à votre enfant. Parce que non, dans le mot « pantalon », on n’entend pas pé, an, té, a, èl, on, on écrit ou on voit la lettre pé, a, èn, té, a, èl, o, èn.

Mais alors, qu’est-ce qu’on entend? …un petit truc!

Pour trouver le son (phonème) d’un mot, prenez un mot qui se finit par la lettre (+e muet) dont vous cherchez le son et vous saurez son son (phonème). Exemple « p », dites « soupe », « sou….p » (vous ne dites pas « je vais manger de la soupE); le « p »est un son produit avec la vibration des lèvres collées.

Envie d’un jeu de conscience phonologique pour vous entrainer ? Un exemple se trouve en images plus haut.

Si vous le souhaitez et pour un faible coût (5 dollars), je vous envoie un super jeu de mémoire dans lequel il s’agit d’inverser des sons de mots de 3 syllabes pour en créer d’autres. Belle activité de segmentation et d’inversion de sons en perspective pour enfants à partir de 6 ans.

Karine Boom, orthophoniste.

www.Milleetuneinspiration.com

Note : Bien entendu, ce sujet est vaste et nous n’avons ici que dressé quelques éléments importants. Validez avec votre orthophoniste s’il est nécessaire de travailler cet aspect et faites-le selon le plan d’intervention qui vous a été remis.

 

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